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e-GIF

The Government Interoperability Framework

e-GIF is Electronic Government Interoperability Framework, which is a Government Enterprise Architecture portraying the overall blueprints of how government is structured and determines how government agencies can effectively achieve their desired objectives

The Architecture

Business

Application

Technology

Data

Milestones

  • 2017

    Open Group Awards

    Government Enterprise Architecture, e-GIF (eGovernment Interoperability Framework) of Royal Government of Bhutan, lead by the Department of Information Technology and Telecom, under Ministry of Information and Communications was selected for the Open Group 2017 Awards for Innovation and excellence in Enterprise Architecture.

  • March 2014

    187 Public services automated

  • December 2012

    Transition to Full Service

  • July 2012

    e-GIF was born

    ICT provides unprecedented opportunities to realize a nation's development vision and objectives. The implementation of e-Government can significantly enhance efficiency, accountability and transparency of Government functions and service delivery. Therefore, in keeping with the priorities of the government, there was need to put in place strategic plans, policies and ICT standards to support smooth implementation of e-Government. In order to address the above challenges, the RGoB has embarked on the development of an e-GIF portal using International standards and best practices which are catered towards Bhutan’s needs.

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eHealth EA Blueprint


The Nation with the Best Health
  1. The Royal Government of Bhutan has accorded priority to tapping the potential of ICT in various sectors. Guided by the vision “the nation with the best health”, the health sector has emphasized the importance of using ICT-enabled solutions to improve the delivery of quality care to the people of Bhutan.
  2. The ICD is originally designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances,and external causes of injury or disease.
  3. The clause 5.4 of the National Health Policy of Bhutan, 2011 states that “The Royal Government of Bhutan shall provide 100% nationwide access to a health care professional through technology-enabled solutions.
  4. Furthermore, Clause 7.2 of National Health Policy 2011 states that “Digitised Health record and information system shall be instituted in all the health facilities for faster and effective health information generation to support decision making.”

  5. The ICT Division was established in the ministry to spearhead, review and manage all the ICT/eHealth activities and guiding the programmes in investing in the area in 2017.
  6. This was followed by the development of the National eHealth Strategy and Work Plan which in 2017 with support from ADB and WHO which served as a lighthouse to ICT initiatives in the ministry.
  7. This also established the National eHealth Steering Committee which served as the governing body for any ICT activities for the ministry and eHealth Technical Working Group was established to carry out review or carry out the ICT activities.

National eHealth Enterprise Architecture Blueprint
  1. Bhutan has successfully come out with an National eHealth Enterprise Architecture Blueprint in December 2020 to ensure all the systems can exchange data seamlessly.
  2. Bhutan's approach to implementing HIS is to have a standard HIS system across all the health facilities in the country and also get data from other stakeholders which has been successfully tested in the COVID19 system implementation.
  3. Another advantage Bhutan has is that the country has information of any individual residing in Bhutan be it Bhutanese citizen or foreigner.
  4. Therefore, it is only imperative for Bhutan to adopt such a system by any means which shall be expensive in the beginning but shall soon payoff in terms of efficiency and huge health care expenditure savings.
  5. If Bhutan can roll out this project successfully, Bhutan will be one among few countries in the world to roll out standardized integrated healthcare IT solutions across the nation that include non-allopathic facilities (Traditional Medicine Hospital/Clinics).
  6. This shall help Bhutan in achieving the goal of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) which every nation in the world is aspiring.
  7. The details document can be found in the link shared below:
    1. National eHealth Strategy: (National_eHealth_Strategy.pdf).
    2. National eHealth EA Blueprint: (National eHealth EA Blueprint.pdf).
    3. National eHealth Standards: (National eHealth Standards.pdf).

eHealth Standards

ICT-11

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD)
  1. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a globally used diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), which is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.
  2. The ICD is originally designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances,and external causes of injury or disease.
  3. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long. Thus, major categories are designed to include a set of similar diseases.

The ICD-11 Revision
  1. The ICD-11 is the eleventh revision of the ICD. It replaces the ICD-10 as the global standard for coding health information and causes of death. The ICD-11 is developed and regularly updated by the World Health Organization (WHO).
  2. Its development spanned over a decade of work, involving over 300 specialists from 55 countries divided into 30 work groups, with an additional 10,000 proposals from people all over the world. The stable version of the ICD-11 was released on 18 June 2018, and officially endorsed by all WHO members during the 72nd World Health Assembly on 25 May 2019.
  3. The ICD-11 is a large ontology consisting of more than 80000 defined entities, also called classes or nodes. An entity can be anything that is relevant to health care.
  4. It usually represents a disease or a pathogen, but it can also be an isolated symptom or (developmental) anomaly of the body. There are also classes for reasons for contact with health services, social circumstances of the patient, and external causes of injury or death.
  5. The collection of all ICD-11 entities is called the Foundation Component.From this common core, various subsets can be derived; for example, the ICD-O is a derivative classification optimized for use in oncology.

The ICD-11 MMS Foundation
  1. The primary derivative of the Foundation is called the ICD-11 MMS, and it is this system that is commonly referred to as simply "the ICD-11". MMS stands for Mortality and Morbidity Statistics.Both the Foundation Component and the ICD-11 MMS can be viewed online on the WHO's website.
  2. The ICD-11 further includes extension codes that cover medicaments as defined in International nonproprietary names, chemicals, infectious agents, histopathology, severity, mechanisms of injury, or anatomy.
  3. ICD-11 ontological structure provides advanced user guidance and assistance in code combinations.The technology can be accessed by any software via API or by humans using the coding tool.Print versions will be made available on demand.
  4. The ICD-11 will officially come into effect on 1 January 2022, at which time member nations may begin reporting morbidity and mortality statistics using the ICD-11 nosology.The WHO has acknowledged that "not many countries are likely to adopt that quickly", i.e. begin using the ICD-11 by the time of its launch.
  5. Bhutan as one of the active member countries of WHO has also adopted ICD-11 by defaults and has started implementing it starting from 2020.As the nation is in the process of digitizing healthcare services using ehealth and mhealth solutions, the adoption of this health standard could not be more timely.
  6. Since the Ministry of Health has adopted this standard, any office, agencies or system planning to use such disease either built, collect or access disease data are mandated to use these standard coding.
  7. More details are available at the WHO ICD-11 (https://icd.who.int/en) website or else please contact officials of the Health Information Management System Team under the MoH.

eGov Governance Team

Jigme Tenzing

Director

Lobzang Jamtsho

Business Architect

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